Strengthening the maintenance of farm machinery to improve the operational status of farm machinery

In recent years, in order to achieve comprehensive economic development and drive people in poor areas to start a new way to get rid of poverty and get rich, the state is vigorously carrying out the implementation of the agricultural machinery purchase subsidy policy, and is using various technologies and equipment to expand the variety of agricultural machinery, and the number of agricultural machinery invested in rural areas is also increasing. Because at this stage there is still a large part of the rural areas in the process of using agricultural machinery still lack of more professional personnel, can not carry out the correct operation of agricultural machinery, farmers for the operation of agricultural machinery, maintenance of common sense does not understand, resulting in agricultural machinery parts often unnecessary damage, to agricultural machinery users bring unnecessary losses. Therefore, the government and relevant departments should combine the actual situation and train farm machinery users on farm machinery operation techniques and maintenance means to optimize the state and efficiency of farm machinery operations and give full play to the value of farm machinery.

A. General knowledge of engine maintenance of agricultural machinery

1、Break-in of the engine

In the early stage of the use of agricultural machinery, the need for full break-in to ensure that the engine can enter a normal state of operation, to lay the foundation for the subsequent use. In the process of operating agricultural machinery, try to ensure that the diesel engine has a longer service life, whether it is a brand new engine or a diesel engine that has undergone substantial repair, it should be fully and reasonably broken in according to the instructions before it can be put into use.

2, oil clean, water clean, gas clean common sense

In the process of using agricultural machinery, oil, water and gas purification is one of the most important aspects of its maintenance and repair. Because diesel fuel as the main fuel in the operation of the engine of agricultural machinery, once the diesel fuel is not pure, mixed with debris, will lead to irreversible wear and damage to some precise parts of the engine of agricultural machinery, will gradually increase the gap between the parts, resulting in oil dripping, oil leakage, and insufficient oil supply pressure and other undesirable phenomena. At the same time, the diesel fuel in the diesel engine of farm machinery may also suffer from deteriorating combustion and reduced power, affecting the normal operation of farm machinery. Oil is also the same, once the oil is not pure, it will make the journal and shaft tile between the wear and tear, and in serious cases will cause the oil channel blockage. If the air is impure and there is a lot of dust mixed in it, it will adversely affect the life of the cylinder liners, pistons and piston rings, causing damage to these parts under prolonged and excessive wear and tear. If the cooling water in the engine is not clean, it will affect the cooling system of the engine, increasing the scale in the cooling system, affecting the normal heat dissipation function of the engine and allowing the engine temperature to rise abnormally.

In the process of using the engine, it is easy to receive the influence of external bad factors, resulting in the phenomenon of loose parts. In this regard, the user should regularly check and tighten the engine parts to prevent the engine from being subjected to excessive vibration and uneven load during operation, so that the bolts, nuts and other parts are loose and pose a threat to the normal operation of agricultural machinery. In particular, the connecting rod, cylinder head and flywheel casing should be checked in time to check the connecting bolts at the joints to eliminate safety hazards. The oil and water in the engine should also be as sufficient as possible on the basis of its purity. If there is an interruption or shortage of diesel and air in the supply, it will affect the normal start of the engine, inhibit the full combustion of diesel and reduce the power of the engine. If the cooling water supply in the engine is not timely or sufficient, it will lead to high engine temperature, reducing the service life of the engine.

Second, the common sense of agricultural equipment harvester maintenance

First, the use of agricultural machinery in the process, the user should be regular and timely clear harvesters outside the accumulation of weeds, debris, etc., the harvester in the crops, rice bran, soil, etc. for timely and adequate cleaning; second, the agricultural machinery harvester in the process of operation, the user to ensure that each part can be fully lubricated, to avoid excessive friction between the various components, the harvester caused Adverse effects. Third, the harvester in all kinds of shells, thin iron parts and other parts, users should also regularly wipe maintenance oil or spray paint, to avoid the harvester shell because there is no protective layer and rust and other phenomena. Fourth, the process of agricultural production, the user must promptly check the tightness of the harvester v-belt, when there is too loose or too tight, the need for reasonable adjustment to avoid the operation of the harvester because of the tightness of the v-belt and be affected. Fifth, any agricultural equipment after use, need to be cleaned and maintained, the user to ensure that the normal function of agricultural equipment in the case of its classification placed, pay attention to the environment of agricultural equipment storage, taking into account the light, humidity and other influencing factors. Parts that are susceptible to weathering, such as tyres, should be covered. In the dense place of electric wire, also to be overhead and other processing.

Third, the maintenance of agricultural machinery and equipment parts

1, the maintenance of precision parts of agricultural machinery

Agricultural machinery parts maintenance, the first should be from the precision parts. For those who use the frequency is relatively low, or temporary use of agricultural machinery parts, the user should not be eager to unseal, it will be exposed to the air, but to put it in a ventilated and dry place for preservation, to ensure that precision parts will not be affected by the erosion of moisture in the air, as well as light and other factors. For parts that have been used but will not be used for a while, the user should carry out reasonable cleaning work to ensure the internal cleanliness of the parts. The user should use a standard detergent or diesel fuel to clean the parts and remove any carbon deposits and other contaminants. At the same time should also pay attention to the assembly of precision parts, to avoid the lack of parts and the impact on the late use of agricultural machinery.

2、Maintenance of agricultural machinery and equipment springs

For the care and maintenance of agricultural machinery, users of agricultural machinery should also pay attention to the maintenance of the springs. For example, the torsion spring, plunger spring and injector regulator spring in agricultural machinery, the user should, according to the specific environment and use, regularly apply grease to the spring in agricultural machinery and put it in a plastic bag to avoid direct contact between the spring and air and moisture. Users? must avoid direct contact between the springs of farm machinery and the outside air to avoid rust and corrosion of the springs and reduce the service life of the farm machinery.

3, agricultural machinery and equipment bearing maintenance

Agricultural machinery and equipment in the process of use, the bearing is also a very critical component. Users in the process of maintenance, pay particular attention to the performance and state of parts such as tiles, copper bushings, powder metallurgy bushings, etc., according to the standard operation and maintenance requirements for its maintenance. In the process of bearing maintenance, should always ensure that the oil and wax layer intact, but also to avoid bearing and other miscellaneous parts collision and deformation or rust.

4, agricultural machinery and rubber products maintenance

For the maintenance of rubber products for agricultural machinery, users can use oil seals, waterproof rings and other methods to extend the service life of agricultural machinery. Even if they are oil-resistant rubber products, when they are stored, they should be prevented from being covered with oil. In addition, because rubber products for agricultural machinery are easily weathered and have high requirements for humidity, temperature, light and other conditions, they should also be protected from damage such as exposure, baking and water immersion in the process of maintenance.

At the present stage, in the application of agricultural machinery in rural areas of China, because a large part of the users of agricultural machinery for the operation of the common sense of agricultural machinery is not comprehensive enough, resulting in the use of agricultural machinery in the process can not be timely maintenance and maintenance, greatly reducing the efficiency of the use of agricultural machinery. Therefore, the relevant units should vigorously promote the standard operating methods of agricultural machinery to users, enhance the efficiency of their agricultural machinery use, optimise the process of operation and maintenance of agricultural machinery, and improve the service life of agricultural machinery.

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